Determination of seroprevalence and associated risk factors for hepatitis B and C Virus infections among apparently healthy non-pregnant mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors

  • Habtamu Biazin
  • Seifegebriel Teshome
  • Zeleke Ayenew
  • Tamrat Abebe
  • Adane Mihret
  • Abraham Aseffa
  • Rawleigh Howe

Abstract

Viral hepatitis is a global public health problem affecting millions of people every year, causing disability and death. Hepatitis B (HBV)and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses spreadhorizontally(mainly through contaminated blood and blood products, sexual contact and contaminated needles) as well as vertically. Both cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide asboth acute infection and through chronicsequelae including chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Maternal infection is a risk factor for vertical transmission.

References

World Health Organization. Prevention and control of viral hepatitis infection: framework for global action 2012.

Shukla S., Mehta G., Jais M. and Singh A. A prospective study on acute viral hepatitis in pregnancy; seroprevalence, and fetomaternal outcome of 100 cases. Journal of biosciences Technology2011, 2(3):279-286.

Saeed, U., Waheed, Y. and Ashraf, M. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses: a review of viral genomes, viral induced host immune responses, genotypic distributions and worldwide epidemiology. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 2014, 4(2), 88-96.

Perz JF, Armstrong GL, Farrington LA, Hutin YJ, Bell BP.The contributions of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections to cirrhosis and primary liver cancer worldwide.Journal of hepatology 2006. 45(4):529-538.

World Health Organization (2009). Hepatitis B vaccines.Weekly epidemiological record.400-405.

Gerlich WH. Medical virology of hepatitis B: how it began and where we are now. Virology Journal 2013. 10(1):239.

Zanetti AR, Van Damme P, Shouval D (2008). The global impact of vaccination against hepatitis B: a historical overview. Vaccine. 26(49):6266-6273.

Shepard CW, Finelli L, Alter MJ (2005). Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection.The Lancet infectious diseases. 5(9):558-567.

Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection.World Journal of Gastroenterology 2007.13(17); 2436– 2441.

Simmonds P. Variability of hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 2006. 21(2): 570-583.

World Health Organization.Department of Communicable diseases surveillance and response.Hepatitis B. World Health Organization Fact Sheets 2002.

Madhava V, Burgess C, Drucker E. Epidemiology of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in sub-Saharan Africa. The Lancet infectious diseases 2005. 2(5):293-302.

Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia: Ethiopian demographic and health survey 2012.

Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia: Ethiopian demographic and health survey 2007.

Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia demographic and Health Survey. Key Indicators Report 2016.

Hwang SH, Oh HB, Kim HS, Lee EY. Evaluation of HBs Ag, HCV and HIV Ag-Ab assays using Bio-Rad elite microplate analyzer. The Korean Journal of laboratory medicine 2006. 26(6):436-441.

World Health Organization. Guidelines for the screening, care and treatment of persons with chronic hepatitis B and C infection 2017.World Health Organization fact sheet.

Wolfgang T, Jeffrey A, and Karen E. Hepatitis C virus quantification: optimization of strategies for detecting low-level viremia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2000; 38(2):888-91.

Awole M, Gebre-Selassie S. Seroprevalence of HBsAg and its risk factors among pregnant women in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal Health Development 2005.19(1):45-50.

Tegegne D, Desta K, Tegbaru B and Tilahun T. Seroprevalence and transmission of Hepatitis B virus among delivering women and their new born in selected health facilities, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. BioMedicine Central Research Notes 2014.7:239.

Mekonnen D, Gebre-Selassie S, Fantaw S, Hunegnaw A, Mihret A. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus in patients with diabetes mellitus: a comparative cross sectional study at Woldiya General Hospital, Ethiopia. Pan African Medical Journal 2014. 17(1).78-81

Sharew B, Mulu A, Teka B and Tesfaye T. Frequency of hepatitis B and C virus infections among blood donors in Northeast Ethiopia.Current Research Microbiology Biotechnology 2015. 3(2): 614-617.

Mekonnen A, Desta K and Damtew E. Prevalence of HBV, HCV and Associated Risk Factors among Cleaners at Selected Public Health Centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.International Journal of Basic and Applied Virology 2015. 4(1): 35-40

Yami A, Alemseged F, Hassen A. Hepatitis B and C viruses’ infections and their association with Human Immunodeficiency virus: a cross-sectional study among blood donors in Ethiopia. Ethiopian journal of health sciences 2011. 21(1):67-75.

Seid M, Gelaw B, Assefa A. Sero-prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic at Dessie Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Advance Life Sciences Health 2014. 1(2):109-120.

Gelaw B and Mengitsu Y (2008). The prevalence of HBV, HCV and malaria parasites among blood donor in Amhara and Tigray regional states.Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. 22(1):3-7.

Negero A, Sisay Z, Medhin G (2011). Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among visitors of Shashemene General Hospital voluntary counseling and testing center.BioMedicine Central Research Notes. 4:35.

Cho Y, Bonsu G, Akoto-Ampaw A, Nkrumah-Mills G, Nimo JJ, Park JK, Ki M. The prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B surface Ag positivity in pregnant women in eastern region of Ghana. Gut and liver 2012. 6(2):235.

Abebe A, Nokes DJ, Dejene A, Enquselassie F, Messele T, and Cutts FT. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: transmission patterns and vaccine control. Epidemiology and infection 2013. 131(01):757-770.

Ndong-Atome GR, Makuwa M, Njouom R, Branger M, Brun-Vézinet F, Mahé A, Rousset D, Kazanji M. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa. Bio Medicine Central infectious diseases 2008. 8(1):82.

Indris KH and Elamin BK (2015).Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B (HBsAg) and Hepatitis C (Anti-HCV) Viruses among Sudanese Patients with HIV/TB Co-Infection.International Journal of Information Research and Review. 2(06):765-768.

Frommel D, Tekle-Haimanot R, Berhe N, Aussel L, Verdier M, Preux PM, Denis F. A survey of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in Ethiopia.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 1993. 49(4):435-439.

Flisiak R., Halota W., Horban A., Juszczyk,J., Pawlowska M. and Simon K (2011). Prevalence and risk factors of HCV infection in Poland.European Journal of gastroenterology &hepatology, 23(12), 1213-1217.

Atsbaha AH, Dejen TA, Belodu R, Getachew K, Saravanan M, Wasihun AG. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among voluntary counseling testing and anti-retroviral treatment clinic attendants in Adwa hospital, northern Ethiopia.BioMedicine Central research notes 2016. 9(1):121.

Zenebe Y, Mulu W, Yimer M, Abera B. Sero-prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. BioMedicine Central infectious diseases 2014. 14(1):118.

Wondimeneh Y, Alem M, Asfaw F, Belyhun Y. HBV and HCV seroprevalence and their correlation with CD4 cells and liver enzymes among HIV positive individuals at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Virology Journal 2013. 10(1):171.

Mehta KD, Antala S, Mistry M, Goswami Y. Seropositivity of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and HIV in antenatal women in India. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 2013. 7(11):832-7.

Esan AJ, Omisakin CT, Ojo-Bola T, Owoseni MF, Fasakin KA, Ogunleye AA. Sero-prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virue co-infection among pregnant women in Nigeria.American Journal of Biomedical Research 2014. 2(1):11-15

Balew M, Moges F, Yismaw G, Unakal C. Assessment of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections and associated risk factors in HIV infected patients at Debretabor hospital, South Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 2014.4(1):1-7.

Rusine J, Ondoa P, Asiimwe-Kateera B, Boer KR, Uwimana JM, Mukabayire O, Zaaijer H, Mugabekazi J, Reiss P, van de Wijgert JH (2013). High seroprevalence of HBV and HCV infection in HIV-infected adults in Kigali, Rwanda.PloS one. 8(5):e63303.

Ephraim R, Donko I, Sakyi SA, Ampong J, Agbodjakey H. Seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections among pregnant women in the Asante Akim North Municipality of the Ashanti region, Ghana; a cross sectional study. African Health Sciences 2015. 15(3):709-713.

Abera B, Adem Y, Yimer M, Mulu W, Zenebe Y, Mekonnen Z. Community seroprevalence of hepatitis B, C and human immunodeficiency virus in adult population in Gojjam zones, northwest Ethiopia. Virology journal 2017. 14(1):21.

Molla S, Munshea A and Nibret E (2015). Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti HCV antibody and its associated risk factors among pregnant women attending maternity ward of FelegeHiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Virology Journal.12:204.

Ding Y, Sheng Q, Ma L, Dou X (2013). Chronic HBV infection among pregnant women and their infants in Shenyang, China.Virology journal. 10(1):17.

Desalegn Z, Wassie L, Beyene HB, Mihret A, Ebstie YA. Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection among pregnant women in resource-limited high endemic setting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: implications for prevention and control measures. European journal of medical research 2016. 21(1):16.

Jafri W., Jafri N., Yakoob J., Islam M., Tirmizi S.F.A., Jafar T., Akhtar S., Hamid S., Shah, H.A. and Nizami, S.Q. Hepatitis B and C: prevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity among children in Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Infectious Diseases 2006.6(1):101.

Downloads

Published

2019-04-17

Issue

Section

Original Article