Magnitude of Diabetic Retinopathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients in Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa


  • Dereje Negussie Woyessa Addis Ababa University


Prevalence, Type II Diabetes, Retinopathy


Background: Diabetic Retinopathy, one of the chronic micro vascular complications, is a major global cause of total blindness. As the global prevalence of diabetes increases, so will the numbers of people with diabetic retinopathy. Hence, this study aimed to determining the magnitude and severity of diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients in Menelik II Hospital.

 Method: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted on newly diagnosed type 2 DM patients. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 20 version computer software.

Result: A total of 111 patients with newly diagnosed type II diabetes participated in this study. The mean age of the study participants was 50.5 (± 10.6years) with a range of 30-70 years.  Almost half of the   respondents (47.7%) completed their secondary school education. The average BMI of the participants was 25.0 ± 3.6kg/m2. Diabetic retinopathy was detected in 24 (21.6%) patients out of whom 7 (29.16%) had mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 8 (33.3%) moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, Severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy 5(20.8%) and 4 (16.7%) proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy at time of diagnosis among type II diabetes was 21.6%. This high number of undiagnosed diabetic retinopathy indicated for an early and regular screening for diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients and more aggressive management of modifiable risk factors could reduce the numbers of people who develop vision-threatening retinopathy. 


1. Zimmet P. The burden of type 2 Diabetes: are we doing enough? [Diabetes Metab 2003;29(4p+2):659-18]
2. WildS, RoglicG, GreenA et al, Global Prevalence of Diabetes, Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030[Diabetes Care 27:1047–1053,2004]
3. Ethiopian Diabetic Association;2009 Available from:
4. WHO, country and regional data on diabetes; 2015 Available from:
5. Anthony F,Eugene B,Dennis K,et al.Harrison’s principles of Internal Medicine. Lippincott Williams, 2008, 17th edition.
6. Datta A,Chakama AK, Datta D. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus patients in Tripura [Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences 2014; Vol. 3, Issue 01, January 06; Page: 136-146]
7. Kohner EM, Aldington SJ, Stratton IM et al. United kingdom prospective diabetic study 30, Diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis of non insulin dependent diabetic mellitus and associated risk factors [Arch opthalmo 1998,116, 297-303]
8. WHO/ISH Hypertension Guidline;2004 Available from: 11069995
9. WHO Global database on BMI; 2015 Available from :
10. International clinical diabetic retinopathy disease severity scaleguidline; 2014 Available from: http:/ for diabetic eye care.PDF/
11. Abdollahi A, Malekmadani MH, MansooriMR et al. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitusTehran,Iran[actamedicairanica, 44(6): 415-419; 2006]
12. Wahab S ,Mohammed N, Shaikh Z et al.Frequency of retinopathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients,karachi,[ JPMA 58:557; 2008]
13. Hayat AS , Khan AM,Baloch HG et al.Frequency and pattern of retinopathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients at tertiary care settings in Abbottabad,Pakistan[ J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2012;24(2)]
14. Rema M,Premkumar S,Anitha B et al. prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban India: The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES)[ Eye Study, I, InvestOphthalmol Vis Sci. 2005; 46:2328–2333]
15. Tapp RJ, Shaw JE, Harper CA et al. The Prevalence of and factors associated with Diabetic Retinopathy in Australian population[ Diabetes Care 26:1731–1737, 2003]
16. Ereifej I,Jaffar A,Nawaiesh B et al. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy In Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. [JRMS August 2009; 16(2):22-25]
17. Al-Zubai H, Al-Tammar Y, Al-Moataz R et al. Retinopathy in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, Kuwait [ Med PrincPract 2005;14:293–296]
18. Agarwal S, Raman R, Kumari RP et al. Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Detected by Targeted Screening Versus Newly Diagnosed in General Practice. [Ann Acad Med Singapore 2006;35:531-5]
19. Rema M, Deepa R, Mohan V. Prevalence of retinopathy at diagnosis among type 2 diabetic patients in south India [ Br J Ophthalmol 2000;84:1058–1060]






Original Article