CARDIAC SURGERY FOR VALVULAR HEART DISEASE AT A REFERRAL HOSPITAL IN ETHIOPIA: A REVIEW OF CASES OPERATED IN THE LAST 30 YEARS

  • Senbeta Guteta Abdissa Addis Ababa University
  • Dejuma Yadeta Addis Ababa Unversity
  • Aklilu Azazh Addis Ababa Unversity
  • Dufera Mekonnen Addis Ababa University

Abstract

Background: Valvular heart disease has been a significant cause of heart disease worldwide. In Ethiopia, it particularly affects young individuals and constitutes the major cause of cardiovascular disease. Factors associated with choice of treatment for advanced valvular heart disease are variable. The objective of this study is to review surgery done for Ethiopian patients with valvular heart disease.

Methods: We analyzed data on patients who had valve surgery and follow-up at the Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital cardiology unit. We collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, the pre-operative status of effected valves and co-morbidities, and assessed their associations with patient management options.

Results: A total of 157 valve surgeries were done from 1983 to 2013. Mean age at time of surgery was 26.7 years and females constituted 66% of the cases. Patients with rheumatic heart disease were younger, more likely to be female and have atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have impaired left ventricular systolic function when compared to patients with non-rheumatic heart disease. More than 75% of the surgical procedures done were mechanical valve replacement. Mechanical valves, compared with bioprosthetic valves, were more likely to be used in patients with rheumatic heart disease. The median age of those receiving mechanical valves, 24 (IQR 22 – 28) years, was lower than those receiving bioprosthetic valves, 31.5 (IQR 29.9 – 37.9) years. Mechanical valve replacement was significantly higher in those under the age of 20 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio 41.0, 95% CI: 3.0-557.2) and in those between 20 and 29 years of age (Adjusted Odds Ratio 14.3, 95% CI: 2.3-88.6).

Conclusions: Valve surgery for valvular heart diseases has been more common performed for young and female patients. A great majority of the replacements done have been with mechanical valves. As many of the patients have been younger and female, the choice of valve surgery and the need for anticoagulation impacts subsequent management of rheumatic heart disease and associated morbidities, lifestyle plans and pregnancy.

Keywords: Rheumatic heart disease, valve surgery, valve choice, Ethiopia

 

Author Biographies

Senbeta Guteta Abdissa, Addis Ababa University

Assistant Professor

Internist and Cardiologist

Dejuma Yadeta, Addis Ababa Unversity
Department of Internal Medicne
Aklilu Azazh, Addis Ababa Unversity
Department of Internal Medicne
Dufera Mekonnen, Addis Ababa University
Department of Internal Medicne

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Published
2016-03-25
Section
Original Article