FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION AS AN ISSUE OF GENDER DISPARITY IN THE 21ST CENTURY: LEVERAGING OPPORTUNITIES TO REVERSE CURRENT TRENDS

Authors

  • Workenesh Ayele 1 ECUSTA Higher Learning Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • Sileshi Lulseged

Abstract

no

References

United Nations Women: Sources of international human rights law on Female Genital Mutilation. Accessed at http://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/645-sources-of-international-human-rights-law-on-female-genital-mutilation.htm

World Health Organization. Eliminating Female Genital Mutilation: An Interagency Statement - OHCHR, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNIFEM, WHO. Geneva: WHO; 2008.

UNICEF: At least 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone FGM/C. March 2016. Accessed at: http://data.unicef.org/child-protection/fgmc.html#sthash.3vv3W07H.dpuf

Central Statistics Authority and ORC Macro. Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2000. CSA Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and ORC Macro, Calverton, Maryland USA: May 2001.

Setegn T, Lakew Y, Deribe K. Geographic variation and factors associated with female genital mutilation among reproductive age women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey. PLOS ONE 2016; http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145329

Banks E, Meirik O, Farley T, Akande O, Bathija H, Ali M. Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries. Lancet 2006; 367 (9525): 1835-41.

Berg RC, Underl V. The obstetric consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2013: 496564

Hakim LY. Impact of female genital mutilation on maternal and neonatal outcomes during parturition. East Afr Med J. 2001; 78(5): 255-8.

Toubia N. Female circumcision as a public health problem. N Engl J Med. 1994; 331(11):712-6.

United Nations. MDG Report – Ethiopia 2014. Accessed at: http://www.et.undp.org/content/ethiopia/en/home/library/mdg/EthiopiaMDG2014.html

Andualem M. Determinants of Female Genital Mutilation Practices in East Gojjam Zone, Western Amhara, Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J 2016; 54:3-10

United Nations. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 2015. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transforming our world

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Published

2016-06-30

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Section

Editorial