VIOLENCE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES REVISITED
Individual, domestic and organized violence affects people from individual to family, community and country at large. The world is witnessing more than ever, a growing trend in violence. There is no spot on our planet that is immune from the scourge of human aggression. Few studies in our country have addressed violence and its outcomes. Since family is the unit that forms the basis of a community and beyond, most recent papers published in Ethiopia have focused on intimate partner violence while some have looked beyond household aggression. Though, the studies have all appropriately suggested recommendations, there is still need for further work focused particularly on the root causes of aggression at individual, group and community levels. There is an important need to address the effects of trauma and study the means and ways these have been attended to with traditionally accepted coping mechanisms. The advisability of launching programs aimed at different levels that might mitigate the sequel of violence and lay a foundation for conflict resolution is timely.
Key words: Intimate Partner Violence, Gender based violence, Trauma, Refugee, Coping
Abebe Abate, B., et al. Determinants of intimate partner violence during pregnancy among married women in Abay Chomen district, Western Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study. BMC Womens Health 2016; 16: 16.
Abeya, S. G., et al. Intimate partner violence against women in western Ethiopia: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors. BMC Public Health 2011; 11: 913.
Abeya, S. G., et al. Intimate partner violence against women in west Ethiopia: a qualitative study on attitudes, woman's response, and suggested measures as perceived by community members. Reprod Health 2012; 9: 14.
Alemayehu, M., et al. Prevalence and predictors of sexual violence among commercial sex workers in Northern Ethiopia. Reprod Health 2015; 12: 47.
Anbesse B., et al. Migration and mental health: a study of low income Ethiopian women working in Middle Eastern countries. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2009; 55(6):557-68.
Araya, M., et al. Effect of trauma on quality of life as mediated by mental distress and moderated by coping and social support among postconflict displaced Ethiopians. Qual Life Res 2007; 716(6): 915-27.
Arnold, D., et al. Prevalence and risk factors of gender-based violence among female college students in Awassa, Ethiopia. Violence Vict 2008; 23(6): 787-800.
Bekele, A. B., et al. Sexual violence victimization among female secondary school students in eastern Ethiopia. Violence Vict 2011; 26(5): 608-30.
Demelash, H., et al. A Case-Control Study on Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight, Southeast Ethiopia. Obstet Gynecol Int 2015; 394875.
Deribe, K., et al. Magnitude and correlates of intimate partner violence against women and its outcome in Southwest Ethiopia. PLoS One 2012; 7(4): e36189.
Deyessa, N., et al. Intimate partner violence and depression among women in rural Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health 2009; 5: 8.
Deyessa, N., et al. Violence against women in relation to literacy and area of residence in Ethiopia. Glob Health Action 2010; 3.
Deyessa, N., et al. Joint effect of maternal depression and intimate partner violence on increased risk of child death in rural Ethiopia. Arch Dis Child 2010; 95(10): 771- 75.
Deyessa, N., et al. Magnitude, type and outcomes of physical violence against married women in Butajira, southern Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J 1998; 36(2): 83-92.
Dibaba, Y. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner physical violence against women in Kofale District, Ethiopia. Trop Doct 2008; 38(1): 52-54.
Erulkar, A. Early marriage, marital relations and intimate partner violence in Ethiopia. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2013; 39(1): 6-13.
Feseha, G., et al. Intimate partner physical violence among women in Shimelba refugee camp, northern Ethiopia." BMC Public Health 2012; 12: 125.
Fitaw, Y., et al. Gender based violence among high school students in north west Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J 2005; 43(4): 215-21.
Fute, M., et al. High prevalence of workplace violence among nurses working at public health facilities in Southern Ethiopia. BMC Nurs 2015; 14: 9.
Garoma, S., et al. Maternal intimate partner violence victimization and under- five children mortality in Western Ethiopia: a case-control study. J Trop Pediatr 2012; 58(6): 467-74.
Gelaye, B., et al. Depressive symptoms among female college students experiencing gender-based violence in Awassa, Ethiopia. J Interpers Violence 2009; 24(3): 464-81.
Hassen, F. and N. Deyessa. The relationship between sexual violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among women using voluntary counseling and testing services in South Wollo Zone, Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes 2013; 6: 271.
Malaju, M. T. and G. D. Alene. Women's expectation of partner's violence on HIV disclosure for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in North West Ethiopia." BMC Res Notes 2013; 6: 96.
Misganaw, A. C. and Y. A. Worku. Assessment of sexual violence among street females in Bahir-Dar town, North West Ethiopia: a mixed method study. BMC Public Health 2013; 13: 825.
Mooney, A., et al. Work-related violence and inconsistent condom use with non- paying partners among female sex workers in Adama City, Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 2013;
Philpart, M., et al. Prevalence and risk factors of gender-based violence committed by male college students in Awassa, Ethiopia. Violence Vict 2009; 24(1): 122-36.
Semahegn, A., et al. Domestic violence and its predictors among married women in reproductive age in Fagitalekoma Woreda, Awi zone, Amhara regional state, North Western Ethiopia. Reprod Health 2013; 10: 63.
Semahegn, A. and B. Mengistie. Domestic violence against women and associated factors in Ethiopia; systematic review. Reprod Health 2015; 12: 78.
Shanko, W., et al. Domestic violence against women in Kersa, Oromia region, eastern Ethiopia. East Mediterr Health J 2013; 19(1): 18-23.
Tadegge, A. D. The mental health consequences of intimate partner violence against women in Agaro Town, Southwest Ethiopia. Trop Doct 2008; 38(4): 228-29.
Tadesse, B. T., et al. High incidence of interpersonal violence in Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. Int Emerg Nurs 2015; 23(3): 213-17.
Tiruneh, B. T., et al. Prevalence of workplace violence in Northwest Ethiopia: a multivariate analysis. BMC Nurs 2016; 15: 42.
Tora, A. Assessment of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University, Southern Ethiopia. J Interpers Violence 2013; 28(11): 2351-2367.
Trott, C. D., et al. Women's Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence in Ethiopia: The Role of Social Norms in the Interview Context. Violence Against Women. 2016;
Worku, A. and M. Addisie. Sexual violence among female high school students in Debark, northwest Ethiopia. East Afr Med J 2002; 79(2): 96-99.