Reviewers are required to provide qualified and timely assessment of the scholarly merits of the manuscript. The reviewer takes special care of the real contribution and originality of the manuscript. The review must be fully objective, and the judgment of the reviewers must be clear and substantiated by arguments. The reviewers assess a manuscript for the compliance with the profile of the journal, the relevance of the investigated topic and applied methods, the scientific relevance of information presented in the manuscript, and the presentation style. The review has a standard format. It is submitted through the online journal management system where it is stored permanently. The reviewer must not be in a conflict of interest with the authors or funders of research. If such a conflict exists, the reviewer is obliged to promptly notify the Editor-in-Chief. The reviewer shall not except for reviewing papers beyond the field of his/her full competence. Reviewers should alert the Editor-in-Chief to any well-founded suspicions or the knowledge of possible violations of ethical standards by the authors including any duplicate submissions or publications during the review process. Reviewers should recognize relevant published works that have not been considered in the manuscript. They may recommend specific references for citation but shall not require citing papers published in the Ethiopian Medical Journal, or their own papers, unless it is justified. The reviewers are expected to improve the quality of the manuscript through their suggestions. If they recommend correction of the manuscript prior to publication, they are obliged to specify the way this can be achieved. Any manuscript received for review must be treated as confidential document.