Antibody levels against HBV after vaccination and sero-prevalence of HBV in children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


  • Seifegebriel e Teshom
  • Habtamu Biazin
  • Tamrat Abebe
  • Adane Mihret
  • Abraham Aseffa
  • Rawleigh Howe


Background:Around two billion people have been infected with HBV worldwide, and more than 240 million are chronic carriers. Vaccine introduction for HBV in children was officially launched by WHO in 1980. Since then the vaccine response level has been determined in different countries. However, there is limited study conducted in Ethiopia to assess the response level and effectiveness of HBV vaccine against the virus since the introduction of the vaccine in 2007.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine antibody levels against HBV after hepatitis B vaccination and assess sero-prevalence of HBV in children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using a multistage probability sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty children between the ages of 5 and 8 years living in one of three sub cities of Addis Ababa were enrolled. Three to four ml of blood was collected from each participant and socio demographic and associated factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire.  ELISA was done to determine antibody levels against HBV.


WHO. Media Centre. Hepatitis B. Accessed on June 21 2015. Available from: URL: 2013.

Gao S, Duan ZP, Coffin CS. Clinical relevance of hepatitis B virus variants. World J Hepatol 2015; 7(8): 1086-1096

WHO. Global Alert and Response. Hepatitis B. Prevention and treatment. Accessed by July 2, 2015. Available from: URL: whocdscsrlyo20022/ en/index5.html 2002.

WHO. Global immunization coverage. Global_immunization data October 2006.pdf

Françoisa G, Dochezb C, Mphahlelec MJ, Burnettd R, VanHala G, Meheus A. Hepatitis B vaccination in Africa: mission accomplished? The South Afri J Epid and Infect 2008; 23 (1): 24-28

Ethiopia: WHO and UNICEF estimate of immunization coverage: 2015 revision, Available on URL:http// Accessed on July 2016

Franco E, Bagnato B, Marino MG, Meleleo C, Serino L, Zaratti L. Hepatitis B: Epidemiology and prevention in developing countries. World J Hepatol 2012; 4(3): 74-80

Al-Shamahy HA, Hanash SH, Rabbad IA, Al-Madhaji NM, Naser SM. Hepatitis B Vaccine Coverage and the Immune Response in Children under ten years old in Sana’a, Yemen: SQU Med J 2011; Vol. 11(1): 77-82.

Norouzirad R, Shakurnia AH, Assarehzadegan MA, Serajian A, Khabazkhoob M. Serum Levels of Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antibody among Vaccinated Population Aged 1 to 18 Years in Ahvaz City Southwest of Iran. Hepat Mon 2014; 14(1):1-5

Rezaei M, Nooripoor S, Ghorbani R, Ramezanshams F, Mamishi S, Mahmoudi S. Seroprotection after hepatitis B vaccination in children aged 1 to 15 years in central province of Iran, Semnan.J PMH 2014; 55: 1-3

Yazdanpanah B, Safari M, Yazdanpanah S. Persistence of HBV Vac¬cine's Protection and Response to Hepatitis B Booster Immuniza¬tion in 5- to 7-Year-Old Children in the Kohgiloyeh and Boyerah¬mad Province, Iran. Hepat Mon 2010; 10(1):17–21.

Esmaili M, Seyedkolal F. Evaluation of anti HBS levels in vacci¬nated children against Hepatitis B, Amirkola Hospital, Babol . KAUMS J (FEYZ) 2003; 6(4):45-49.

Gonzalez ML, Gonzalez JB, Salva F, Lardinois RA. 7-year follow-up of newborns vaccinated against hepatitis B. Vaccine 1993; 11:1033-1036.

Shaaban FA, Hassanin AI, Samy SM, Salama SI and Said ZN. Long term immunity to hepatitis B among a sample of fully vaccinated children in Cairo, Egypt. East Med Helth J 2007; 13(4): 750-757

Jafarzadeh A, Montazerifar SJ. Persistence of anti-HBs antibody and immunological memory in children vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine at birth. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2006; 18:4-9.

Rafizade B, Kazemi AN, Amir Moghadami HR, Moosavi Nasab N. Survey of Anti-HBs Serum Level in Vaccinated 7-9 Year-old Chil¬dren in Zanjan City 2004. ZUMS J 2004; 12(47):49-55.

Aghakhani A, Banifazl M, Izadi N, McFarland W, Sofian M, Khadem-Sadegh A et al. Persistence of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen among vaccinated children in a low hepatitis B virus endemic area. World J Pediatr 2011;7(4):358-360

Upreti SR, Gurung S, Patel M, Dixit SM, Krause LK, Shakya G et al. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection before and after implementation of a hepatitis B vaccination program among children in Nepal. Vaccine 2014; 32(34): 4304–4309.

Kitau R, Datta SS, Minal K. Patel MK, Hennessey K, Wannemuehler K et al. Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Seroprevalence among Children in Papua New Guinea, 2012–2013. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg 2015;92(3): 501–506

Huang P, Zhu LG, Zhu YF, Yue M, Su J, Zhu FC, et al. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection and impact of vaccination. World J Gastroenterol 2015 ; 21(25): 7842-7850

Ji Z, Wang T, Shao Z, Huang D, Wang A, Guo Z et al. A Population-Based Study Examining Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Immunization Rates in Northwest China. PLoS ONE 2014: 9(5)

Van der Sande MAB, Waight PA, Mendy M, Zaman S, Kaye S, Sam O et al Long-Term Protection against HBV Chronic Carriage of Gambian Adolescents Vaccinated in Infancy and Immune Response in HBV Booster Trial in Adolescence. PLoS ONE 2007; 2(8): e753.

Van der Sande MAB, Waight P, Mendy M, Rayco-Solon P, Hutt P, Fulford T et al. Long-Term Protection against Carriage of Hepatitis B Virus after Infant Vaccination. The J Infect Dis 2006; 193:1528–35

Jafarzadeh A, Montazerifar SJ. Persistence of anti-HBs antibody and immunological memory in children vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine at birth. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2006; 18:4-9.

Zeinab NAS. An overview of occult hepatitis B virus infection. World J Gastroenterol 2011; 17(15): 1927-1938




How to Cite

Teshom, S. e, Biazin, H., Abebe, T., Mihret, A., Aseffa, A., & Howe, R. (2019). Antibody levels against HBV after vaccination and sero-prevalence of HBV in children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Medical Journal. Retrieved from



Original Article