Patterns of abdominal ultrasound findings in HIV/AIDS patients in Black Lion Hospital


  • tesfaye Kebede legesse AAU
  • Zufan wolde
  • assefa getachew kebede Body imaging subspecialist Department of radiology Addis a baba university
  • Daniel admassie


Background: HIV infection is a major public health concern worldwide. This cytopathic retrovirus destroys the immune system that leads to opportunistic infections and tumors. Various organs of the body may be affected, leading to a variety of clinical presentations. Radiology plays an important role in the management.  Not many papers have focused on this role in Ethiopia and little attention has been given to the use of ultrasound in the evaluation of patients with HIV/AIDS.

Materials and Methods: institutional based prospective cross sectional study of 111 HIV/AIDS patients who presented for abdominal ultrasound to the Department of Radiology, Black Lion Hospital, from November 2015 to July 2016

Results:   The most common finding was hepatomegaly found in 50(45.5%). Other findings were hyperechoic (fatty) liver in 26(23.4%), splenomegaly in 31(27.9%), lymphadenopathy in 13(11.71%) and ascites in 11(9.91%). Gallbladder and biliary ductal and renal findings were uncommon in this study.

Conclusion:  The findings in this study demonstrate that a myriad of ultrasonographic abnormalities can appear in the abdomens of HIV/AIDS patients. These sonographic abnormalities are non-specific to a particular pathogen or disease entity.  However, such findings in the right clinical context and laboratory evaluation will help clinicians to arrive at a diagnosis, leading to better patient care and management.

Author Biography

tesfaye Kebede legesse, AAU

Body imaging subspecialist

Department of radiology

Addis a baba university


WHO. HIV/AIDS Fact sheet. World Health Organanization. july 2018.

Smith FJ, Mathieson JR, Cooperberg PL. Abdominal abnormalities in AIDS: detection at US in a large population. Radiology. 1994 Sep;192(3):691-5. PubMed PMID: 8058935. Epub 1994/09/01. eng.

AL. F, Messele T, Dejene A, Enquselassie F, Abebe A, Cutts FT ea. Age-sex-specific HIV-1 prevalence in the urban community settings of Addis Abab. Ethiopia AIDS 1998. 1994;12:8.

Berhane, Yemane;, Mekonnen, Yared, Seyoum, Eleni, et al. HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia : an epidemiological synthesis. World Bank Global HIV/AIDS Program series Washington, DC: World Bank 2008.

Obajimi MO, Atalabi MO, Ogbole GI, Adeniji-Sofoluwe AT, Agunloye AM, Adekanmi AJ, et al. Abdominal ultrasonography in HIV/AIDS patients in southwestern Nigeria. BMC medical imaging. 2008;8:5-. PubMed PMID: 18312644.

Pereira Graziella Hanna, Yamagutti Diva Carvalho Collarile, de. MJS. Evaluation of the histopathological hepatic lesions and opportunistic agents in Brazilian HIV patients. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2010 43(1):3.

Echejoh G, Mandong B, Tanko NM, Manasseh A, Okeke E, Agaba E. Hepatic histopathological findings in HIV patients at postmortem in Jos university teaching hospital, Nigeria2006. 228-31 p.

B O-E Igbinedion, T Marchie, Ogbeide E. Trans-abdominal ultrasonic findings correlated with CD4+ counts in adult HIV-infected patients in Benin, Nigeria. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY 2009;13(2):7.

Tshibwabwa ET, Mwaba P, Bogle-Taylor J, Zumla A. Four-year study of abdominal ultrasound in 900 Central African adults with AIDS referred for diagnostic imaging. Abdominal imaging. 2000 May-Jun;25(3):290-6. PubMed PMID: 10823454. Epub 2000/05/24. eng.

Schneiderman DJ. Hepatobiliary abnormalities of AIDS. Gastroenterology clinics of North America. 1988 Sep;17(3):615-30. PubMed PMID: 3049366. Epub 1988/09/01. eng.

Yee JM, Raghavendra BN, Horii SC, Ambrosino M. Abdominal sonography in AIDS. A review. Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. 1989 Dec;8(12):705-14. PubMed PMID: 2685351. Epub 1989/12/01. eng.

B O-E Igbinedion, T Marchie, Ogbeide E. Trans-abdominal ultrasonic findings correlated with CD4+ counts in adult HIV-infected patients in Benin, Nigeria. AJOL. 2009;13(2):7.

Furrer H, Study tSHC. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Splenomegaly in Asymptomatic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2000;30(6):943-5.

Addissie A, Sellassie FE, Deressa W. Malaria and HIV co-infection in Hadya Zone, southern Ethiopia. Ethiopian medical journal. 2007 Jan;45(1):9-17. PubMed PMID: 17642153. Epub 2007/07/24. eng.

Chloe Symeonidou, Richard Standish, Anju Sahdev, Robert D. Katz, John Morlese, Malhotra A. Imaging and Histopathologic Features of HIV-related Renal Disease. RadioGraphics. 2008;28(5).

Wachsberg RH, Obolevich AT, Lasker N. Pelvocalyceal thickening in HIV-associated nephropathy. Abdominal imaging. 1995 Jul-Aug;20(4):371-5. PubMed PMID: 7549747. Epub 1995/07/01. eng.

Di Fiori JL, Rodrigue D, Kaptein EM, Ralls PW. Diagnostic sonography of HIV-associated nephropathy: new observations and clinical correlation. AJR American journal of roentgenology. 1998 Sep;171(3):713-6. PubMed PMID: 9725302. Epub 1998/09/02. eng.

Hadadi A, Jafari S, Jebeli ZH, Hamidian R. Frequncy and etiology of lymphadenopathy in Iranian HIV/AIDS patients. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine. 2014;4(Suppl 1):S171-S6. PubMed PMID: 25183076.

Cappell MS, Shetty V. A multicenter, case-controlled study of the clinical presentation and etiology of ascites and of the safety and clinical efficacy of diagnostic abdominal paracentesis in HIV seropositive patients. The American journal of gastroenterology. 1994 Dec;89(12):2172-7. PubMed PMID: 7977236. Epub 1994/12/01. eng.

Saab S, Rickman LS, Lyche KD. Ascites and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Report of 54 cases. Medicine. 1996 May;75(3):131-41. PubMed PMID: 8965682. Epub 1996/05/01. eng.