Magnitude of AIDS defining and non-AIDS defining malignancies and determinants among children and adolescents living with HIV in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: an institution based retrospective cross-sectional study
an institution based retrospective cross-sectional study
Keywords:HIV, children, adolescents, cancer, Ethiopia
Background and aims: The highest burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet descriptions of oncologic disorders among children living with HIV in the region is scant. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining and non-AIDS defining malignancies among children and adolescents living with HIV and under care at a tertiary Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st May – 30th September, 2019. There were 323 children and adolescents eligible for the study with their follow-up period spanning from 2000 – 2018. Data was collected using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS version 25.0 software. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted with 95% confidence interval and P-value < 0.05.
Results: The prevalence of all types of malignancies in the study population during their follow-up period was 3.4%: AIDS defining (1.55%) and non AIDS defining malignancies (1.85%). Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma from the AIDS defining and Hodgkin’s lymphoma among the non AIDS defining malignancies were the commonest diagnoses. Five of eleven patients achieved cure. Advanced HIV infection correlated significantly with a diagnosis of a malignancy (AOR: 7; 95% CI: 1.5, 34).
Conclusions: The prevalence of oncologic disorders in a pediatric cohort living with HIV is described. Advanced infection was associated with the development of a malignancy. Early diagnosis and timely initiation of anti-retroviral treatment can help prevent the development of cancers in children and adolescents living with HIV.
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