Factors associated with congenital anomalies among young infants at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Introduction: Congenital anomalies require multitude of surgical procedures at a very early life and impose a large impact on the lives of patients and parents and yet causes are still largely unknown, but assumed to be multifactorial. A few studies focused on environmental risk factors, but evidence is still scarce.
Methods: This is a case control study of infants less than 3 months of age with congenital anomalies evaluated or admitted to the hospital between December 1 2017 and May 31 2018. Face-to-face interviews with parents of young infants were carried out to collect socio-demographic and clinical information.
Results: Analysis of the data showed that among 200 young infants with congenital anomalies enrolled in the study, gastrointestinal system is most commonly affected organ system. Maternal factors that were significantly associated with congenital anomalies included the lack of peri-conceptional use of folic acid (OR = 3.6; 95% CI = 1.6-7.7; p = 0.005), an inadequate attendance to antenatal clinic (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.5-3.6; p < 0.001), family history of congenital anomalies in 3 %of cases (OR 2.4:95% CI =1.5-3.6; P< 0.001). Infant factors that were significantly associated with congenital anomalies were male sex, and birth weight of 2.5 kg or less.
Conclusions: In this study, the proportion of women taking folic acid supplements during pregnancy was very low and mothers of infants with congenital anomalies has less antenatal follow up.
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