A first case of Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS CoV 2 (PIMS-TS) from Ethiopia
Case report and a review of literature
Keywords:COVID19, children, PIMS-TS, MIS, Ethiopia, Kawasaki disease
Many thousands of children have so far been diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. An uncommon presentation of pediatric COVID-19 is the Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS CoV 2 (PIMS-TS), also referred as Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Though more than 35 countries have reported this syndrome, there have been no reports from low- and middle-income countries including Ethiopia. We are reporting the first child from Ethiopia affected by PIMS-TS along with a review of literature concerning its presentation, diagnosis and management.
Choi SH, Kim HW, Kang JM, Kim DH, Cho EY. Epidemiology and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in children. Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020 Apr;63(4):125-132. doi: 10.3345/cep.2020.00535. Epub 2020 Apr 6. PMID: 32252139; PMCID: PMC7170785.
Whittaker E, Bamford A, Kenny J, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 58 Children With a Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally Associated With SARS-CoV-2. JAMA. 2020;324(3):259–269. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.10369
Fernández-Sarmiento J, De Souza D, Jabornisky R, et al. Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS): a narrative review and the viewpoint of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Intensive Care (SLACIP) Sepsis Committee. BMJ Paediatrics Open 2021;5:e000894. doi:10.1136/ bmjpo-2020-000894
Carter MJ, Shankar-Hari M, Tibby SM. Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally-Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: An Overview. Intensive care medicine 2021, 47(1), 90–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06273-2
WHO scientific brief - Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents with COVID-19. 15th May 2020. WHO/2019-nCoV/Sci_Brief/Multisystem_Syndrome_Children/2020.1
Lawrensia, S, Henrina, J, Wijaya E, Suciadi LP, Saboe A, Cool CJ. Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally Associated with SARS-CoV-2: a New Challenge amid the Pandemic. SN Compr. Clin. Med. 2, 2077–2085 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42399-020-00602-8
Davies P, Evans C, Kanthimathinathan HK, Lillie J, Brierley J, Waters G et al. Intensive care admissions of childrenwith paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS) in the U.K.: a multicenter observational study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30215-7
Rowley, A.H. Understanding SARS-CoV-2-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Nat Rev Immunol 20, 453–454 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-020-0367-5
Toubiana J, Poirault C, Corsia A, Bajolle F, Fourgeaud J, Angoulvant F et al. Kawasaki-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Paris, France: prospective observational study. BMJ 2020 Jun 3; 369: m2094. doi:10.1136/bmj.m2094. PMID: 32493739; PMCID: PMC7500538.
Hoste, L., Van Paemel, R. & Haerynck, F. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children related to COVID-19: a systematic review. Eur J Pediatr (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-021-03993-5
American Academy of Pediatrics [Kawasaki Disease] In: Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, Long SS. Red Book: 2018 Report of the committee on infectious diseases, 31st ed. Itasca, IL; American Academy of Pediatrics, 2018; 490 - 497
Zhao J, Yuan Q, Wang H, Liu W, Liao X, Su Y et al. Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Patients With Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 19;71(16):2027-2034. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa344. PMID: 32221519; PMCID: PMC7184337.
Feldstein LR, Rose EB, Horwitz SM, Collins JP, Newhams MM, Son MBF et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in U.S. children and adolescents. N Engl J Med 2020;383:334-46. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2021680
Whittaker E, Bamford A, Kenny J, Kaforou M, Jones CE, Shah P et al. Clinical Characteristics of 58 Children With a Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally Associated With SARS-CoV-2. JAMA. 2020;324(3):259–269. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.10369
Belhadjer Z, Meot M, Bajolle F, Khraiche D, Legendre A, Abakka S et al. Acute heart failure in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in the context of global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Circulation. Volume 142, Issue 5, 4 August 2020; https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.048360
Verdoni L, Mazza A, Gervasoni A, Martelli L, Ruggeri M, Ciuffreda M et al. An outbreak of severe Kawasaki-like disease at the Italian epicenter of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic: an observational cohort study. Lancet 2020; 395: 1771–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0140-6736(20)31103-X
Nino-Taravilla C, Espinosa-Vielma YP, Otaola-Arca H, Poli-Harlowe C, Tapia LI, Oritz-Fritz P. Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Treated with Tocilizumab. Pediatr. Rep. 2020, 12, 142–148; doi:10.3390/pediatric12030029
Belhadjer Z, Auriau J, Meot M, Oualha M, Renolleau S, Houyel L et al. Addition of Corticosteroids to Immunoglobulins Is Associated With Recovery of Cardiac Function in Multi-Inflammatory Syndrome in Children. Circulation. Volume 142, Issue 23, 8 December 2020; Pages 2282-2284 https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050147