Persistent hiccups in men with Covid 19-two cases from Nigeria
Copyright (c) 2021 Ethiopian Medical Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Hiccups are defined as extraordinary type of respiratory movement involving a sudden inspiration (intake of air) due to an involuntary contraction of the diaphragm accompanied by closure of the glottis (the vocal apparatus of the larynx). The abrupt inspiration is the result of a sudden contraction of the diaphragm. The classification of hiccups is by their duration. Acute hiccups are of less than 48 hours duration, persistent last over 2 days, and intractable last over a month.
It is a rare but distinct chemosensory presentation of COVID 19 disease and seldomly reported from Africa. We report 2 cases of persistent hiccups in Nigerian men with RT-PCR positive cases of mild COVID-19 disease. Both men (aged 59, 63 years) had associated fever, anosmia and ageusia, with hiccups onset 2-4 days after COVID- 19 diagnosis, and in one case it persisted for 10 days, including for 3 days after SARS-CoV-2 negativity.
- Stenger M, Schneemann M, Fox M. Systematic Review : the pathogenesis and pharmacological treatment of hiccups. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2015, 42 (9) : 1037-50.
- Prince G, Sergel M. Persistent hiccups as an atypical presenting complaint of COVID-19. Am J Emerg Med 2020, 38(7) : 1546 e5 – 1546 e6. Doi. 10.1016/ajem. 2020.04.045.
- Bakheet N, Fouad R, Kassem AM, Hussin W, El- Shazly M. Persistent hiccup : A rare presentation of COVID -19. Respir Investig 2020 doi : 10. 1016/j.resinv.2020. 11.003
- Ali SK, Muturi D, Sharma K. Be Wary of Hiccups: An Unusual Case of COVID-19. Cureus. 2021 Jan 28;13(1):e12974. doi: 10.7759/cureus.12974. PMID: 33654635; PMCID: PMC7914000.
- Alvarez-Cisneros, T., Lara-Reyes, A. & Sansón-Tinoco, S. Hiccups and psychosis: two atypical presentations of COVID-19. Int J Emerg Med 14, 8 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12245-021-00333-0
- Babalola OE, Bode CO, Ajayi AA, Alakaloko FM, Akase IE, Otrofanowei E et al. Ivermectin shows clinical benefits in mild to moderate COVID 19: A randomized controlled double blind, dose response study in Lagos. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine 2021. doi.https//doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcab035
- Von Bartheld CS, Hagen MM, Butowt R. Prevalence of Chemosensory Dysfunction in COVID-19 patients : A systematic review and meta-analysis reveals significant ethnic differences. ACS Chem Neurosci 2020, 11(19) : 2944-2961.