Magnitude and associated factors of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus among mid-adulthood urban residents of west Ethiopia

  • Articles
  • Submited: May 10, 2021
  • Published: January 1, 2022


Introduction: People are more likely to die due to biological impairment than chronological aging. Diabetes is a public health problem, whereby diagnosing proves challenging for health providers.  Likewise, the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes in west Ethiopia is unnoticed.

Aim: To investigate the magnitude and associated factors of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus among middle aged adult urban populations in west Ethiopia.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from 01 March 2019 -August 2019 on 266 undiagnosed middle aged urban residents. Data was collected using questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and biomarkers as per WHO steps. Fasting blood glucose ≥ 126mg/dl in the morning was taken as diabetes and FBS>100-125mg/dl, pre-diabetes (impaired FBS). SPSS version 24 multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied, and associated factors were considered statistically significant at 95%CI with p <0.05.

Results: The overall magnitude of newly diagnosed raised fasting blood sugar was 7.14% among urban residents in west Ethiopia. Of this, 2.25% was had diabetes and the remaining 4.89 % was pre-diabetes. Having a sleep disorder, sedentary lifestyle, increased: waist circumference, waist to height ratio, BMI, triglycerides, and blood pressure were significantly associated with elevated fasting blood glucose. On multivariable logistic analysis, having a high BMI and elevated blood pressure were four (AOR: 4.87; p=0.049), and five (AOR: 5.22; p=0.005) times more associated with diabetes mellitus, respectively. Sleep apnea (p=0.023) was also shown to have significant association with diabetes.

Conclusions: This study revealed undiagnosed diabetes was prevalent and associated to common risk factors in west Ethiopia. Therefore, age targeted community-based education and early detection are significant to reduce its burden.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. IDF. IDF diabetes atlas. International diabetes Federation; 2013.
  2. Chawla A, Chawla R, Jaggi S. Microvasular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: distinct or continuum? Indi an J EndocrinolMetab. 2016;20(4):546. doi:10.4103/2230-8210.183480
  3. WHO. Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2014. World Health Organization; 2014.
  4. Zhou B, Lu Y, Hajifathalian K, et al. Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4.4 million participants. The Lancet 2016; 387:1513–30.
  5. WHO. Global Report on Diabetes. World Health Organization; 2016.
  6. Cho N, Shaw J, Karuranga S, et al. IDF diabetes atlas: global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2017 and projections for 2045. Diabetes Res ClinPract. 2018; 138:271–281. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2018.02.023.
  7. Ogurtsova K, da Rocha Fernandes J, Huang Y, et al. IDF diabetes atlas: global estimates for the prevalence of diabetes for 2015 and 2040. Diabetes Res ClinPract. 2017; 128:40–50. doi:10.1016/j. diabres.2017.03.024
  8. Hall V, Thomsen RW, Henriksen O, et al. Diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa 1999-2011: epidemiology and public health implications. A systematic review. BMC Public Health 2011; 11:564.
  9. Motala A, Ramaiya K. Diabetes: the hidden pandemic and its impact on sub- Saharan Africa Diabetes leadership forum; 2010.
  10. Roglic G. Who global report on diabetes: a summary? Int J Non-Communicable Dis 2016; 1.
  11. Tesfaye T, Shikur B, Shimels T, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose level among members of federal police Commission residing in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC EndocrDisord 2016; 16:68. 14.
  12. YemaneT, Belachew T, Asaminew B, Befekadu O. Type II diabetes mellitus in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia. Eth J Health Sci 2007;17(2).
  13. Worede A, Alemu S, Gelaw YA, et al. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors among adults living in a rural Koladiba town, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes 2017; 10:251.
  14. Bantie GM, Wondaye AA, Arike EB, et al. Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and associated factors among adult residents of Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia: a community- based cross- sectional study. Bantie GM, et al. BMJ Open 2019;9: e030158. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030158.
  15. Beagley J, Guariguata L, Weil C, Motala AA. Global estimates of undiagnosed diabetes in adults. Diabetes Res ClinPract. 2014;103 (2):150–160. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2013.11.001.
  16. Tran A, GelayeB, GirmaB, et al. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Working Adults in Ethiopia. International J. Hypertension, 2011; 193719.
  17. Atlas D. International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas. 7th ed. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation; 2015.
  18. Toyba Endris1 Abebaw Worede2 Daniel Asmelash. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus, Prediabetes and Its Associated Factors in Dessie Town, Northeast Ethiopia: A Community-Based Stud. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 2019:12 2799–2809;
  19. Aynalem SB, Zeleke AJ. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Risk Factors among Individuals Aged 15 Years and Above in Mizan-Aman Town, Southwest Ethiopia, 2016: A Cross Sectional Study. Int J Endocrinol. 2018 Apr 26; 2018:9317987. doi: 10.1155/2018/9317987. PMID: 29853887; PMCID: PMC5944196.
  20. Dereje, N., Earsido, A., Temam, L. and Abebe, A., 2020. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Diabetes Mellitus in Hosanna Town, Southern Ethiopia. Annals of Global Health, 86(1), p.18. DOI:
  21. Sachithanan than V, LohaE, Gose M. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and lipodystrophy in HAART receiving HIV patients in Southern Ethiopia. Internat STD Rese &Revi2013;1(1):1-11.
  22. Jaya Prasad Tripathy, J. S. Thakur, GursimerJeet, Sohan Chawla, Sanjay Jain, Arnab Pal, Rajendra Prasad & Rajiv Saran. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes in a large community-based study in North India: results from a STEPS survey in Punjab, India. Diabetology& Metabolic Syndrome volume 9, Article number: 8 (2017)
  23. Basit A, Fawwad A, Qureshi H, et al. Prevalence of diabetes, pre-diabetes, and associated risk factors: second National Diabetes Survey of Pakistan (NDSP), 2016–2017. BMJ Open 2018;8: e020961. doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2017-020961
  24. Akter, Shamima, Rahman, M Mizanur, Abe, Sarah Krull & Sultana, Papia. (‎2014)‎. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes and their risk factors among Bangladeshi adults: a nationwide survey. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 92 (‎3)‎, 204-213A.
  25. World Health Organization.
  26. Balde NM, Diallo I, Balde MD, Barry IS, Kaba L, Diallo MM, Kake A, Camara A, Bah D, Barry MM, Sangare-Bah M, and Maugendre D. Diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in rural and urban populations in Futa Jallon (Guinea): prevalence and associated risk factors. Diabetes Metab, 2007;33(2):11420.
  27. Mbanya JC, Cruickshank JK, Forrester T, Balkau B, Ngogang JY, Riste L, Forhan A, Anderson NM, Bennett F, and Wilks R. Standardized comparison of glucose intolerance in west African-origin populations of rural and urban Cameroon, Jamaica, and Caribbean migrants to Britain. Diabetes Care, 1999;22(3):434-40.
  28. Abebe SM, Berhane Y, Worku A andAssefa A. Diabetes mellitus in Northwest Ethiopia: a community-based study. BMC Public Health, 2014;14(97):1-8.
  29. Nigatu T. Epidemiology, complications, and management of diabetes in Ethiopia: a systematic review. J Diabetes, 2012;4:174-80.
  30. Elmasry A, Lindberg E, Berne C, et al. Sleep-disordered breathing, and glucose metabolism in hypertensive men: a population-based study. J Intern Med 2001; 249 (2):153-61.
  31. Ip MS, Lam B, Ng MM, Lam WK, Tsang KW, Lam KS. Obstructive sleep apnea is independently associated with insulin resistance. Am J RespirCrit Care Med 2002; 165 (5): 670-6.
  32. Punjabi NM, Sorkin JD, Katzel LI, Goldberg AP, Schwartz AR, Smith PL. Sleep disorder breathing and insuline resistance in middle-aged and overweight men. Am J RespirCrit Care Med 2002; 165(5): 677-82.
How to Cite
Feyissa, A. (2022). Magnitude and associated factors of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus among mid-adulthood urban residents of west Ethiopia. Ethiopian Medical Journal, 60(01). Retrieved from

Send mail to Author

Send Cancel