PATTERN AND OUTCOME OF TETANUS IN A TERTIARY HEALTH FACILITY IN NORTH WEST NIGERIA
Background: Tetanus, a disease that is largely preventable, is still a major public health problem in the developing world and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is a paucity of published literature on adult (non-neonatal) tetanus in this study area in Nigeria.
Methods: This was a study describing the clinical characteristics of patients who were clinically diagnosed with tetanus in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) Zaria, northwest of Nigeria between January 2001 and December 2014.
Results: A total of 91 cases were reviewed. The mean patient age was 20 years, and male to female ratio 2.9:1. The majority (88%) of patients were < 40 years old. The mean onset period was 19 days, nearly all patients (96.7%) had generalized tetanus, and the commonest presenting signs were spasm (93.4%) and trimus (78.0%). The most common site of injury was lower limbs (64.8% of cases). The complication rate was 71.4% and case fatality was 48.4%.
Conclusion: Tetanus is still a major public health problem in our setting and affects the younger age group with a high case fatality rate. The incidence of tetanus can be reduced drastically by an effective and sustained immunization program.
Key words: adult tetanus, clinical characteristics, case fatality, outcome, North West Nigeria
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